Climate Change Finance

International Cooperation

Over the past 30 years, the human consciousness of adaptation to climate change has become more intense, The international community has made various efforts. Many cooperative and supervisory organizations have been set up and more financial and material resources were put into efforts to mitigate and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change on humankind. International cooperation has become one of the most important concerns in the field of adaptation to climate change.


We have already concluded that most of the observed warming is due to the burning Fossil fuels. Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas are high in carbon and, when burned, produce major amounts of carbon dioxide or CO2. This conclusion is based on understanding of the atmospheric greenhouse effect and how human activities have been tweaking it from the Industrial Revolution. The chart show the relationship between GDP global per capita, CO2 emission and Tempreture global.

data source:World Bank


In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change
, as a framework for international cooperation to combat climate change
by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change,
and coping with impacts that were, by then, inevitable.

data source:UNFCCC

frequency of event per year

timeline 2015 Paris- the 21st Conference of the Parties 2014 20th Anniversary UNFCCC Reality Check IPCC Releases 2nd Part of Fifth Assessment Report UN Secretary-General's Climate Summi Lima- the 20th Conference of the Parties 2013 New Home for UNFCCC Secretariat IPCC Releases 2nd Part of Fifth Assessment Report Arsaw- The 19th Conference of the Parties 2012 Doha- the 18th Conference of the Parties 2011 Durban- At the 17th Conference of the Parties Momentum for Change Launched at COP 17 in Durban, South Africa 2010 Cancun- The 16th Conference of the Parties 2009 Copenhagen- the 15th Conference of the Parties 2008 Joint Implementation Mechanism Starts Poznan- The 14th Conference of the Parties 2007 Bali- The 13th Conference of the Parties 2006 Clean Development Mechanism Opens Nairobi-the 12th Conference of the Parties 2005 EU Emissions T rading Launches Kyoto Protocol Enters into Force Montreal- the 11th Conference of the Parties 2004 Buenos Aires - The 10th Conference of the Parties 2003 Milan - The 9th Conference of the Parties 2002 New Delhi - The 8th Conference of the Parties 2001 Marrakesh - The 7th Conference of the Parties 2000 The Hague - The 6th Conference of the Parties 1999 Bonn - The 5th Conference of the Parties 1998 Buenos Aires- The 4th Conference of the Parties 1997 Kyoto Protocol Adopted- The 3rd Conference of the Parties 1996 UNFCCC Secretariat Moves to Bonn Geneva- the 2nd Conference of the Parties 1995 Berlin- the 1st Conference of the Parties 1994 UNFCCC Enters into Force 1992 UNFCCC Opens for Signature at Rio Earth Summit 1990 IPCC and Second W orld Climate Conference Call for Global T reaty UN General Assembly Negotiations on a Framework Convention Begin 1988 IPCC Established

data source:UNFCCC

party 21 Confe r ences of the of UNFCCC Parties 197 24 154 24 154 19 Party Contributions Party Recipients Party Economies In T ransition Party Contributions Party Recipients These Parties including 19 "economies in transition" (EI T s). The EI T s a r e the former centrally-planned (Soviet) economies of Russia and Easte r n Eu r ope. The r e a r e 24 Parties to the UNFCCC listed in Annex II of the Convention. These Parties a r e made up of members of the O r ganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). They a r e r equi r ed to p r ovide financial and technical support to the EI T s and developing countries to assist them in r educing their g r eenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and manage the impacts of climate change (climate change adaptation). Parties to the UNFCCC not listed in Annex I of the Convention a r e mostly low-income developing countries. They accept the financial and technical support of developed countries. Developing countries may volunteer to become Annex I countries when they a r e su f ficiently developed.
未标题-4 USA USA 7475.6 million 17.8% 7668.59 million 22.6% UK UK 604.97 million 1.4% 3408.19 million 10% Switzerland Switzerland 408.14 million 1% 1493.15 million 4.9% Sweden Sweden 1175.05 million 2.8% 4022 million 11.8% Spain Spain 315.1 million 0.8% 1619.92 million 4.5% Portugal Portugal 84.08 million 0.2% 834.27 million 2.5% Others Others 6691.88 million 15.7% 856.49 million 2.5% Norway Norway 772.77 million 1.8% 1459.57 million 4.3% Japan Japan 7568 million 18.1% 1147 million 3.4% Italy Italy 180.98 million 0.4% 1880.07 million 5.5% G r eece G r eece 67.08 million 0.2% 1105.91 million 3.3% Germany Germany 4242.49 million 10.3% 137.27 million 0.4% France France 10581.76 million 25.2% 2870.51 million 7.9% Finland Finland 46.59 million 0.1% 1421.25 million 4% Denmark Denmark 282.39 million 0.7% 852.05 million 2.5% Canada Canada 195.9 million 0.5% 991.32 million 3.3% Belgium Belgium 1074.39 million 2.5% 1720.35 million 4.8% Australia Australia 221.89 million 0.5% 759,92 million 2.2% African Development Bank/Fund Asian Development Bank/Fund Clean T echnology Fund Climate Investment Fund Eu r opean Development Fund Global P r ogram/Fund Inte r -American Development Bank Inte r national Finance Corporation/Community Others UNDP W orld Bank Africa Asia Balkans Caribbean Central Africa Central America Central Asia China East Africa East Asia Eu r ope Middle East North Africa North America Oceania South Africa South America South Asia Southeast Asia Southe r n Africa W est Africa T otal 41812.16 million T otal 34166.1 million
未标题-1 W est Africa Africa Asia South Asia Southeast Asia North Africa South America Central America Eu r ope South Africa Other 12565.31 5740.46 5629.08 5195.75 5098.92 3024.90 1426.19 1054.80 464.99 351.50 1375.51 W orld Bank UNDP African Development Bank IDA Asian Development Bank CIF African Development Fund Eu r opean Union EIB EDF Other 10786.19 3982.44 2710.05 1640.44 1436.56 1252.14 1031.44 1024.07 1024 949.23 8292.26 W orld bank(1944): The W orld Bank is an inte r national financial institution that p r ovides loans to developing countries for capital p r ograms. It comprises two institutions: the Inte r national Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the Inte r national Development Association (IDA). The W orld Bank is a component of the W orld Bank G r oup, which is part of the United Nations system. The Inte r national Development Associa - tion (IDA) (1960): The Inte r national Development Association (IDA) is an inte r na - tional financial institution which o f fers concessional loans and grants to the world's poo r est developing countries. The IDA is a member of the W orld Bank G r oup and is headquar - te r ed in W ashington, D.C., United States. The United Nations Development P r o - gramme (UNDP)(1965): The United Nations Development P r ogramme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network,It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and r esou r ces to help people build a better life. It p r ovides expert advice, training, and grants support to developing countries, with inc r easing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. The African Development Bank G r oup (AfDB) (1964) The African Development Bank G r oup (AfDB) is a multilateral development finance institution established to contribute to the economic development and social p r og r ess of African countries. The AfDB s mission is to fight poverty and imp r ove living conditions on the continent th r ough p r omoting the investment of public and private capital in p r ojects and p r ograms that a r e likely to contribute to the economic and social development of the r egion. The African Development Fund (ADF)(1972): The African Development Fund (ADF) is the concessional window of the African Development Bank (AfDB) G r oup. It contributes to poverty r eduction and economic and social development in the least developed African countries by p r ovid - ing concessional funding for p r ojects and p r ograms, as well as technical assistance for studies and capacity-building activi - ties.It comprises, to date, 29 contributing countries and benefits 38 countries. The Climate Investment Funds ( CIFs )(2008) : The Climate Investment Funds ( CIFs ) we r e designed by devel - oped and developing countries and a r e implemented with the multilateral development banks (MDBs) to fill a gap in the inte r national climate finance a r chitectu r e to p r ovide scaled-up finance to support developing and eme r ging economies in adopting low-carbon and climate r esilient development. Eu r opean Union(1958): The Eu r opean Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that a r e located primarily in Eu r ope.The EU has developed an inte r nal single market th r ough a standa r dised system of laws that apply in all member states.EU policies aim to ensu r e the f r ee movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the inte r nal market, enact legislation in justice and home a f fairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agricultu r e , fisheries , and r egional development . The Eu r opean Investment Bank ( EIB )(1985): As the "Bank of the Eu r opean Union", the EIB's mission is to make a di f fe r ence to the futu r e of Eu r ope and its partners by supporting sound investments which further EU policy goals. The EIB uses its financing operations to bring about Eu r opean integration and social cohesion. The Eu r opean Development Fund ( EDF )(1956): the Eu r opean Development Fund (EDF) is the EU's main instru - ment for p r oviding development aid to African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and to overseas countries and territories (OC T s). Asian Development Bank(ASDB)(1966): The ADB defines itself as a social development o r ganization that is dedicated to r educing poverty in Asia and the Pacific th r ough inclusive economic g r owth , envi r onmentally sustain - able g r owth , and r egional integration . Mo r e than 150 Institutions

data source:UNFCCC

data source:UNFCCC

data source:UNFCCC

data source:UNFCCC

data source:Climate Funds Update

data source:Green Investment Report


In the recent decades, people gradually become aware of the consequence
of the climate change which is highly relevant to the radical human economic activities. In order to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems, the financial support for mitigation and adaptation activities has been increasing annually. Meanwhile, the international cooperation is becoming more and more closely. (Due to the unevenly distributed adaptive capacity, the public resources are mainly transferred from developed to developing countries.)

The multilateral and bilateral cooperations have been extensively expended, and the financial transparency has been improved. But in the current phase we still have some problems. For example, there are still some undefined funds we can not track, we still need more initiatives to monitor and track flows of international climate finance. Further more, although the potential result of climate investment is predictable, but we still can not tell the final result in a short time.